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[文化] GEERT HOFSTEDE霍夫斯泰德文化数据

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发表于 2018-1-30 17:18:34 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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六个文化维度:

POWER DISTANCE INDEX (PDI)
This dimension expresses the degree to which the less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. The fundamental issue here is how a society handles inequalities among people.

People in societies exhibiting a large degree of Power Distance accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification. In societies with low Power Distance, people strive to equalise the distribution of power and demand justification for inequalities of power.

INDIVIDUALISM VERSUS COLLECTIVISM (IDV)
The high side of this dimension, called Individualism, can be defined as a preference for a loosely-knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of only themselves and their immediate families.

Its opposite, Collectivism, represents a preference for a tightly-knit framework in society in which individuals can expect their relatives or members of a particular ingroup to look after them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. A society’s position on this dimension is reflected in whether people’s self-image is defined in terms of “I” or “we.”

MASCULINITY VERSUS FEMININITY (MAS)
The Masculinity side of this dimension represents a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness, and material rewards for success. Society at large is more competitive. Its opposite, Femininity, stands for a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life. Society at large is more consensus-oriented.

In the business context Masculinity versus Femininity is sometimes also related to as “tough versus tender” cultures.

UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE INDEX (UAI)
The Uncertainty Avoidance dimension expresses the degree to which the members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity. The fundamental issue here is how a society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we try to control the future or just let it happen?

Countries exhibiting strong UAI maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour, and are intolerant of unorthodox behaviour and ideas. Weak UAI societies maintain a more relaxed attitude in which practice counts more than principles.

LONG TERM ORIENTATION VERSUS SHORT TERM NORMATIVE ORIENTATION (LTO)
Every society has to maintain some links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and the future. Societies prioritize these two existential goals differently.

Societies who score low on this dimension, for example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing societal change with suspicion.

Those with a culture which scores high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.

In the business context, this dimension is referred to as “(short-term) normative versus (long-term) pragmatic” (PRA). In the academic environment, the terminology Monumentalism versus Flexhumility is sometimes also used.

INDULGENCE VERSUS RESTRAINT (IND)

Indulgence stands for a society that allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun. Restraint stands for a society that suppresses gratification of needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms.

包含国家:111个
Africa EastCzech RepJapanRwanda
Africa WestDenmarkJordanSaudi Arabia
AlbaniaDominican RepKorea SouthSerbia
AlgeriaEcuadorKyrgyz RepSingapore
AndorraEgyptLatviaSlovak Rep
Arab countriesEthiopiaLithuaniaSlovenia
ArgentinaEl SalvadorLuxembourgSouth Africa
ArmeniaEstoniaMacedonia RepSouth Africa white
AustraliaFinlandMalaysiaSpain
AustriaFranceMaliSuriname
AzerbaijanGeorgiaMaltaSweden
BangladeshGermanyMexicoSwitzerland
BelarusGermany EastMoldovaSwitzerland French
BelgiumGhanaMontenegroSwitzerland German
Belgium FrenchGreat BritainMoroccoTaiwan
Belgium NetherlGreeceNetherlandsTanzania
BosniaGuatemalaNew ZealandThailand
BrazilHong KongNigeriaTrinidad and Tobago
BulgariaHungaryNorwayTurkey
Burkina FasoIcelandPakistanU.S.A.
CanadaIndiaPanamaUganda
Canada FrenchIndonesiaPeruUkraine
ChileIranPhilippinesUruguay
ChinaIraqPolandVenezuela
ColombiaIrelandPortugalVietnam
Costa RicaIsraelPuerto RicoZambia
CroatiaItalyRomaniaZimbabwe
CyprusJamaicaRussia

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 楼主| 发表于 2018-1-30 17:20:52 | 显示全部楼层
自己占个沙发 哈哈哈
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发表于 2018-1-30 20:51:21 | 显示全部楼层
看看内容是啥
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发表于 2018-3-11 10:10:25 | 显示全部楼层
正想着找找这方面的资料呢
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发表于 2018-3-11 10:18:26 | 显示全部楼层
感谢楼主,好好研究下这些数据应该怎么使用
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-3-15 11:19:49 | 显示全部楼层
IrisC 发表于 2018-3-11 10:18
感谢楼主,好好研究下这些数据应该怎么使用

不谢
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发表于 2018-3-22 20:29:46 | 显示全部楼层
.............................
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发表于 2018-4-11 11:31:49 | 显示全部楼层
赞一个二呃呃呃呃呃呃呃呃呃呃呃呃额二二二二二二二二二二二二二二二二二二二二二二二二二二二寻二多多多多多多大奥
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发表于 2018-4-14 14:38:37 | 显示全部楼层
应该不错,感谢分享!
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发表于 2018-4-21 18:19:07 | 显示全部楼层
请问怎样购买呢
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